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When devising this little side-project, with Aleister Crowley currently on the stage, Herald suggested a little look at the magical organization which he was a member of; the Golden Dawn. There is quite a lot which could be covered, but for this initial post, it will just be a quick overview of the organization and some of its members. This was initially planned to be done in the months after NT18 last year, which described Aleister Crowley's past with the Golden Dawn, seeming like a good time to do so. Unfortunately, due to various circumstances, progress has been slowed and it was delayed far past this point. However, certain events in NT20 have presented another opportunity.

NOTE: Bear in mind that a number of the subjects which might be involved have differing interpretations and disagreements concerning them. Also, I'm just a casual reader in these areas, so there may be some mistakes at times, though I try to avoid them as much as possible. If there are any points for improvement, correction or discussion, please feel free to discuss them in a constructive manner in the comments section below.

NOTE: Due to certain hints concerning what transpires in NT21 (the events of which will not be detailed here), as well as high workload and generally being a bit fed up with this, this article is being launched while only partially done and with many references yet to be put in place. It will be updated as the rest is completed.

Introduction

Rose Cross Lamen.svg

The Rose Cross, one of the symbols associated with the Golden Dawn, inherited from the S.R.I.A.

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Latin: Ordo Hermeticus Aurorae Aureae), more commonly referred to as the Golden Dawn (Aurora Aurea), was a magical organization which was active in Great Britain during late 19th and early 20th centuries, devoted to the study and practice of the occult.[TBR 1]

The Golden Dawn was founded in 1887 by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, William Wynn Westcott and William Robert Woodman, three British occultists who were Freemasons and members of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.). The foundation of the order was based upon a set of documents obtained by Westcott known as the Cipher Manuscripts which outlined the magical rituals and theories which would form the base of the Golden Dawn's teachings. Westcott allegedly made contact with Anna Sprengel, an adept whose name was listed in the documents and apparent contact point for a group of higher beings referred to as the Secret Chiefs, and received a letter granting permission to establish a temple for a new order.[Ext 1][Ext 2]

The Isis-Urania Temple was subsequently established in London in 1888.[Ext 1] In its early years, the Golden Dawn was a single cohesive group. In 1892, an inner, Second Order was founded, made up of adepts who had completed the training taught to initiates into the original, outer, First Order. The group's Third Order was allegedly the Secret Chiefs, with which contact was supposedly made through the leader of the Second Order as an intermediary, following the end of the alleged correspondence with Anna Sprengel in 1891.[Ext 2][TBR 1]

Over time, the group grew in notability and notoriety, though it maintained secrecy concerning its mysteries and teachings. At its height in the mid-1890s, the Golden Dawn had over a hundred members from every circle of society and from a variety of professions; many from the arts and sciences, but also trade and business, and apparently some from the clergy as well.[Ext 1]

Woodman died after a brief illness in 1891 and in 1896, Westcott ceased public involvement with the Golden Dawn, believed to be due to his position as a Crown Coroner and his association with the group (seen as disreputable for someone in that position) coming to the attention of his superiors, leaving Mathers as the overall leader of the Golden Dawn, though Westcott maintained influence in the cabal which Mathers sought to erode in time.[Ext 3][TBR 1]

Dissatisfaction with Mathers' autocratic leadership (as well as his association with Aleister Crowley), scandals and further schisms within the Golden Dawn eventually led to the organization's collapse in 1903, after which various successor groups formed, including Mathers' Alpha et Omega (A∴O∴), Stella Matutina (S∴M∴), the Isis-Urania Temple (formerly the first temple of the original order), and Aleister Crowley's A∴A∴.[Ext 3][TBR 1] Many of these have likewise collapsed over time while some successors continue in some form to this day. The Golden Dawn was a major influence on 20th century Western occultism, inspiring many magical concepts which form the cores of various contemporary traditions and systems.[Ext 1][Ext 3][TBR 1]

Members and Associates

Founders

The Golden Dawn had three co-founders, two of which have been named in the Toaru series. In real life, these three occultists were Freemasons and members of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.),[Ext 4] a Rosicrucian magical order.[Ext 1] Whether or not their Toaru counterparts were also part of this group isn't known, though the way in which Mathers and Westcott refer to Rosicrucians might suggest otherwise.[1]

Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers

Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (RL)

Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, in Egyptian costume, performing a ritual of Isis

First off, there is the most notorious of the three founders, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers - magician, Jacobite, autocrat and eccentric. He led the Golden Dawn for much of the organization's life and his actions played a major role in the group's eventual collapse. While the circumstances in the Toaru universe were different, his actions played a key role in shaping the backstory and events of the series. In both, he was an ally-come-enemy of Aleister Crowley.

Mathers was born in London in 1854. He was the son of a commercial clerk, William M. Mathers, who died while he was young. After his father's death, he lived with his mother in Bournemouth.[Ext 5][TBR 1] Briefly serving in the local barracks and working as a clerk himself,[TBR 1] he joined the Bournemouth Freemasons in 1877 and the Rosicrucians in 1882. He moved back to London in 1885, following the death of his mother.[TBR 1] In 1886, he, along with several other future members of the Golden Dawn, attended a series of Hermetic lectures by Anna Kingsford, who has been thought to have been a major influence on them and to whom Mathers would later dedicate one of his translations.[Ext 6]

In 1887, he was approached by fellow S.R.I.A. member William Wynn Westcott, for aid in deciphering the contents of the Cipher Manuscripts and developing them into a functional magical system and curriculum. After developing the foundations for the new group and inviting S.R.I.A. chief William Robert Woodman to join them, in 1888 the trio established the Hermetic Order of Golden Dawn and the Isis-Urania Temple, in which Mathers held the initial post of Praemonstrator.[Ext 6]

Following Woodman's death in 1891, Mathers inherited his position as Imperator while Westcott became Praemonstrator.[Ext 6] His magical mottos were S' Rioghail Mo Dhrem (S.R.M.D., Gaelic for "royal is my race")(his Outer Order motto and that of the MacGregor clan)[Ext 1][Ext 7] and Deo Duce Comite Ferro ("With God as my leader and the sword as my companion").[Ext 8] Mathers would subsequently restructure the Golden Dawn, resulting in the establishment of the Second Order.[Ext 5] Mathers married Mina Bergson (who subsequently took the name Moina Mathers) in 1890 and emigrated to Paris in 1892, though he continued to lead the Golden Dawn.[Ext 5][TBR 1]

Frequently described as an eccentric and increasingly so as time went on,[Ext 6][TBR 1] Mathers was an enthusiast in Celtic history, culture and affairs, particularly those of Scotland. Styling himself as a highlander and wearing traditional attire, he took the name MacGregor to signify his supposed lineage, which has been noted as somewhat dubious, both in-series and out. He also had a strong Jacobite agenda, which he would end up devoting much of his attention to, at the expense of his Golden Dawn affairs and to the discontent of its members, contributing to his eventual fall. He also had an interest in ancient Egypt, though not nearly to the extent of his Celtic and Scottish interests.[TBR 1]

He was interested in warfare and military tactics, but he was also an anti-vivisectionist and a vegetarian.[TBR 1] He was a non-smoker, which was slightly unusual for the time, as well as an advocate of woman's rights, quite possibly due to the influence of Anna Kingsford. He also held interest and participated in boxing and dueling, apparently receiving a nose scar from the latter.[TBR 1] If certain sources are to be believed, he also had a tendency to play chess by himself, supposedly against unseen supernatural entities.[TBR 1]

Being a polyglot, Mathers translated a large number of occult books, including The Book of Abramelin (14thC.), The Kabbalah Unveiled (Christian Knorr von Rosenroth, 1684), the Greater Key of Solomon (anonymous 14thC.), the Lesser Key of Solomon (anonymous 17thC.) and the Grimoire of Armadel (17thC.).[TBR 1] He played a major role in the development of the Golden Dawn's magical system and curriculum, and was responsible for introducing certain Enochian aspects from the works of John Dee into their rituals.[Ext 7][Ext 5][TBR 1]

Like his Toaru counterpart, the real Mathers displayed strong authoritarian tendencies. He sought to eliminate opposition to his control, eroding the authority of rivals and demanding submission from the other members, even at one point claiming to have been inducted into the Third Order.[Ext 3] At the same time, he became increasingly more focused on his Jacobite agenda and militarism, while still expecting the obedience of the London temple adepts as he ruled in absentia from Paris. His attitude would cost him the financial backing of Annie Horniman, which was one of the Mathers' key sources of income, and led to increasing discontent among the other members of the Golden Dawn.[Ext 3]

Unlike his Toaru counterpart who was struck down by Aleister Crowley in 1900 following the Battle of Blythe Road,[2] the real-life Mathers (who was still on friendly terms with Crowley at that point) was expelled from the Golden Dawn in April 1900 due to dissatisfaction with his leadership among the London adepts, his attempts to exert his authority, his association with Crowley, and his claims concerning Westcott and the Cipher Manuscripts.[Ext 3] His attempts to hold onto the Golden Dawn failed[Ext 3] and his deception by Swami Laura Horos in the following year dealt another blow to the order.[Ext 9]

When it became clear that he wouldn't be able to reclaim what he had lost, Mathers took the people still loyal him and what assets he still had or could obtain, and founded a successor organization, Alpha et Omega (A∴O∴), a few years later.[Ext 3] He would continue to lead this group as Imperator until his death in 1918,[Ext 8][Ext 7] after which his wife Moina became the group's Imperatrix.[Ext 8][Ext 7] The exact cause of his death isn't clear,[TBR 1] though at least one unverifiable account by Dion Fortune attributes it to the influenza epidemic at the time.[TBR 1][Ext 7]

Like in the Toaru series, Mathers' relationship with Crowley would turn to one of enemies however the breakdown occurred a few years after the collapse of the Golden Dawn.[TBR 1] One of the various factors involved in this concerns Aleister releasing several of Mathers' translations (such as the Lesser Key of Solomon in 1904) and Golden Dawn material without permission. Mathers attempted to sue Aleister in 1909 for publishing Golden Dawn material in The Equinox, against the order's code of secrecy, but failed due to not properly copyrighting the material.[TBR 1] Mathers was among the enemies whom Crowley featured as antagonists in his works, portraying him as the main villain S.R.M.D. in his 1917 novel Moonchild.[Ext 10]

William Wynn Westcott

William Wynn Westcott (RL)

William Wynn Westcott, depicted in Rosicrucian ceremonial garments

Work in progress

Next among the founders is William Wynn Westcott, the one who originally devised the idea for the order, based on the contents of supposed Cipher Manuscripts.

Pre-Golden Dawn, Section under construction

In 1888, they founded the Isis-Urania Temple of the Hermetic Order of Golden Dawn, with Westcott holding the position of Cancellarius.[Ext 6] His magical mottos were Sapere Aude[Ext 8] (Latin: "Dare to Know") and Non Omnis Moriar [Ext 8]. After Woodman's death in 1891, Westcott became Supreme Magus of the S.R.I.A. and Praemonstrator of the Golden Dawn while Mathers assumed the position of Imperator.[Ext 1]

Late 1890s, Section under construction

Unlike his Toaru counterpart who was struck down by Aleister Crowley using Imagine Breaker in 1900 following the Battle of Blythe Road,[2] the real-life Westcott would live past the collapse of the Golden Dawn and was involved in one of its successor organizations, Stella Matutina. After retiring as a coroner in 1910, Westcott emigrated to South Africa in 1918, dying in Durban in 1925.[Ext 11][Ext 12][TBR 1]

William Robert Woodman

Work in progress

The third founder, who wasn't named but referenced in Toaru series,[3] was William Robert Woodman. A senior member of the S.R.I.A., Woodman had become Supreme Magus of the society after the death of the group's founder a decade earlier and had expanded the order into one of the premier Rosicrucian societies in the world, extending its influence beyond London and the rest of the UK to America and Australia. Due to his seniority and grasp of Hermeticism and Qabalah, Westcott invited him to become a founding leader in the Golden Dawn, holding the office of Imperator in the Isis-Urania Temple.[Ext 3][Ext 1] His magical mottos in the Golden Dawn were Magna est Veritas et Praelavebit (meaning "Great is the Truth and it shall Prevail")(or just Magna est Veritas) and Vincit Omnia Veritas (meaning "Truth Rules All").[Ext 13][Ext 14][Ext 8]

As well as being an occultist, Woodman was also a surgeon (as a volunteer during Napoleon III's coup-d'état, at a GP and as a police surgeon) and a prominent horticulturalist.[Ext 13][Ext 14][Ext 3][TBR 1]

Unlike his Toaru counterpart, Woodman didn't retire from the affairs of the Golden Dawn due to old age,[1] remaining a leader in both the Golden Dawn and the S.R.I.A. until his death in 1891 following a sudden illness. However they are both the least known founder, in part due to his death occurring before the creation of the Golden Dawn's Second Order.[Ext 13][Ext 14][Ext 3][TBR 1]

Other Members

Aleister Crowley

Aleister Crowley (RL, Osiris)

Aleister playing the role of Osiris in a Golden Dawn ritual

There's quite a lot which could be said about Aleister Crowley and a fair bit was covered in NT18, but this time around it'll just be some stuff pertaining to his time in the Golden Dawn and his relationships with the other magicians in the order.

Aleister was introduced to the Golden Dawn by George Cecil Jones (who would later help him found the A∴A∴) in 1898 and inducted later in the year by Mathers.[Ext 2] His magical motto in the order was Perdurabo[Ext 9] (Latin for "I will endure (to the end)", somewhat apt given his Toaru incarnation). He quickly rose through the ranks of the First Order, passing the Adeptus Minor examination in May 1899 but was refused initiation into the Second Order.[TBR 1][Ext 9][Ext 1][Ext 3] In August of the same year, he went to Boleskine House near Loch Ness to carry out a series of rituals from The Book of Abramelin (the Loch Ness experiment referred to in NT19).[Ext 9] While there, he apparently took to calling himself the 'Laird of Boleskine'.[TBR 1]

Aleister wasn't particularly popular within the order, in part due to his inclinations and lifestyle, and feuded with a fair few members, Yeats among them. His main friend within the Golden Dawn was his mentor Allan Bennett.[TBR 1] Due to the poor state of Allan's previous residence, Aleister shared his flat with Allan with the latter tutoring him in return. Late in 1899, Allan's asthma worsened and he subsequently departed to Asia to relieve it, with Aleister apparently contributing to the cost of the journey, as opposed to what happened in the Toaru series.[Ext 15][4] Aside from being mentored by Bennett and Jones, Aleister was also allied to Mathers, seeing him as his potential link to the Secret Chiefs.[Ext 9]

Unlike his Toaru counterpart, who destroyed the cabal and cursed its members in an attempt to change the foretold death of his daughter,[4][2] the real life Aleister Crowley was still affiliated with Mathers at the time of the Golden Dawn's collapse.[Ext 9] Mathers' association with him aggravated the other members' increasing dissatisfaction with Mathers and Aleister's promotion by him, overriding the decision of the London officials, was the final straw that prompted them to expel Mathers from the order.[Ext 9][Ext 3][TBR 1]

Though the motivations and circumstances differ between the two, both were key factors in the conflict in the Golden Dawn and both instigated the 'Battle of Blythe Road', ostensibly on Mathers' behalf in real-life and pretending so in the Toaru series.[2][Ext 3][Ext 9] The real life Aleister apparently wore a black Osiris mask and kilt during the incident (if I recall correctly, there were a few people hoping for this bit to crop up in some form).[Ext 3] Following the fallout, Aleister left the country and went to the US and then Mexico,[Ext 9] embarking on a journey across the world.[TBR 1]

Aleister's relationship with Mathers broke down a few years after the collapse of the Golden Dawn. Aside from clashes of ego, Aleister also published several of Mathers' translations (such as the Lesser Key of Solomon in 1904) without permission and also published Golden Dawn material in The Equinox against the code of secrecy that the order followed. Mathers subsequently attempted to sue him in 1909, though he failed as the material was not properly copyrighted.[TBR 1] Both the real life and Toaru Aleisters featured versions of their enemies as antagonists in their works, with Mathers being portrayed as main villain S.R.M.D. (or Douglas) in his 1917 novel Moonchild, along with Waite (Arthwa(i)te) and Yeats (Gates).[Ext 12][Ext 10]

Moina Mathers

Moina Mathers (RL)

Moina Mathers, in Egyptian costume, performing the rites of Isis in Paris, 1899

Work in progress

During Kamijou Touma's ascent through the Windowless Building, he was guided (and bothered) by the Reading Thoth 78 in the recreated form of Mina Mathers, who like her real-life counterpart Moina Mathers (born Mina Bergson) was the wife of Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and a member of the Golden Dawn.

Mina Bergson was born in 1865 in Geneva, Switzerland, into an influential family, who moved to Paris when she was 2 and later onto London. Her elder brother, Henri Bergson, would become a philosopher,[Ext 3] author of Creative Evolution,[TBR 1] winner of 1927's Nobel Prize for Literature,[Ext 3][TBR 1] and a president of the British Society for Psychical Research.[TBR 1] A talented artist, she joined the Slade School of Art in 1880. In 1882, she met Annie Horniman and the two became good friends, though their relationship would eventually become strained after her marriage to Mathers.[TBR 1]

Early years, Sub-section under construction

Mina Bergson met her future husband in 1887 while studying at the British Museum. The following year, when the Golden Dawn was founded, Mina was the first initiate into the new order.[Ext 3] Her magical motto in Golden Dawn was Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum (Latin for "I never retrace my steps").[Ext 16] She married Mathers in 1890 and changed her given name to the more Celtic Moina, becoming Moina Mathers.[Ext 3][TBR 1] Probably differing from the recreation's attitude,[3] Moina was apparently a staunch supporter of her husband throughout her life.[Ext 3]

Golden Dawn, Section under construction

After Mathers' expulsion from the Golden Dawn and the organization's subsequent splintering, Moina helped with the foundation of his successor organization, Alpha et Omega. After her husband's death in 1918, Moina became the leader of Alpha et Omega and continued to lead it until her own death in 1928.[Ext 16][Ext 1][TBR 1]

During her time as Imperatrix of the Alpha et Omega, Moina Mathers was involved in a number of controversies and conflicts with several members of her order, including Paul Foster Case and Dion Fortune, whom she expelled from the group. In the case of Dion Fortune, Moina was alleged to have spiritually attacked her, causing her to be assaulted by both real and etheric cats,[Ext 17][Ext 18][TBR 1] which is quite likely where her Toaru version's association with cats originates.[5] Several accounts suggest that her leadership may have left a bit to be desired.[TBR 1]

Moina returned to England a couple of years after her husband's death. Remaining in poverty, she relied on the charity of friends and acquaintances to keep going. She apparently tried to make some money through her art at some point, but due to having been focused on running the order, her artistic skills had degraded.[TBR 1] So far as is known, none of her art has survived.[TBR 1]

Allan Bennett

Work in progress

Charles Henry Allan Bennett, more commonly known as Allan Bennett, was a friend and teacher of Aleister Crowley in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, who later played an important role in the introduction of Buddhism to England and the western world. His magical motto was Iehi Aour (Hebrew for "Let there be light").[TBR 1]

Early life, Section under construction

In both real life and the Toaru series, Allan was one of Aleister's few friends in the order. Due to the poor state of Allan's previous residence, Aleister shared his flat with Allan with the latter tutoring him in return. Late in 1899, Allan's asthma worsened and he subsequently departed to Asia to relieve it, with Aleister apparently contributing to the cost of the journey, as opposed to what happened in the Toaru series.[Ext 15][4]

Aleister's accounts describe Allan Bennett constructing a wand out of glass, resembling a chandelier, and on being ridiculed by a group of theosophists for the use of wands while he and Aleister were walking one day, blasting a theosophist with it, knocking them out for about 14 hours.[Ext 15] This formed the basis for the Blasting Rod in the Toaru series.

After traveling to Asia, Allan Bennett studied Hatha Yoga in Ceylon and later took vows as a Theravada Buddhist monk in Burma, taking the names Swami Maitrananda in the Sangha and Ananda Metteyya as a Bhikkhu. He remained friends with Aleister, though their paths would take them apart. In 1903, he founded the Buddhasasana Samagama in London, the first Buddhist mission in the UK, and also began the periodic journal "Buddhism, An Illustrated Review", however he would have to return to Burma due to his illness, eventually returning to England six years after both advancement and further deterioration.[TBR 1]

Unlike his Toaru counterpart, who had Aleister kill him at the start of Aleister's destruction of the Golden Dawn,[4] he lived past the time of the Golden Dawn, dying in 1923 at the age of 51 in poverty. Apparently he had intended to travel to California due to health reasons, but was stranded after being denied an immigration visa, the outbreak of World War I and by his failing health.[TBR 1]

A. E. Waite

Work in progress

Arthur Edward Waite, commonly known as A. E. Waite, was a member of the Golden Dawn and the co-creator of the Rider-Waite Tarot deck, one of most famous variants of the Tarot. The cards were illustrated by fellow Golden Dawn member Pamela Colman Smith under Waite's instructions and the deck was first published in 1909-1910 by the publisher William Rider & Son, remaining in publication to this day.[TBR 1]

Early life, Section under construction

Waite first joined the Golden Dawn's Outer Order in 1891. He left in 1893 but rejoined in 1896, progressing to the Inner Order in 1899. He also became a Freemason and an SRIA member in the 1900s.[TBR 1] In the Toaru series, Waite was one of the reinforcements who arrived to support Mathers in his battle against Aleister Crowley.[2] In real-life, during the schisms in the Golden Dawn, Waite remained with the Isis-Urania Temple. In both cases however, Waite was one of Aleister's foes. Aleister featured him as the villainous "Arthwate" in Moonchild and referred to him as "Dead Waite" in The Equinox.[Ext 10][TBR 1]

Golden Dawn and Tarot, Section under construction
Later life, Section under construction

W.B. Yeats

Work in progress

Another notable member of the Golden Dawn, who hasn't been featured in the Toaru series yet, is William Butler Yeats (or W.B. Yeats), an Irish poet who was an important figure in early 20th century literature.[Ext 3] Yeats acquired his interest in mysticism during childhood, as well as Irish legends and the works of William Blake, subjects which would influence the many works he would later produce.[Ext 3][TBR 1]

Yeats joined the Golden Dawn in March 1890,[Ext 3] three years after his family moved to London. His magical motto was D(a)emon est Deus inversus (Latin: "The demon is the reverse of God"/"The devil is god inverted").[Ext 12][TBR 1] Yeats was a notable enemy of Aleister Crowley in the Golden Dawn (another one featured in Moonchild, as 'Gates')[Ext 12] and was present at 36 Blythe Road during the 'Battle of Blythe Road'.[Ext 3] During the collapse of the Golden Dawn, Yeats resigned due to further disputes which occurred after Mathers' expulsion. Afterwards, he joined Stella Matutina and remained with them until 1921.[Ext 3][TBR 1]

Yeats was a friend of fellow Golden Dawn member Annie Horniman and helped found the Abbey Theatre with her, as well as writing several plays which were performed there. For his literary work, Yeats was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923.[Ext 3] He was also elected to the Irish Senate in 1922 and 1925, stepping down in 1928 due to ill health. He remained a prolific writer in his last years despite his declining health, dying in Menton, France in 1939, aged 73. Buried there with minimal fuss, his corpse was later exhumed and brought back to Ireland.[Ext 19][TBR 1]

Robert William Felkin

Under construction

In the Toaru series, Robert William Felkin was one of the reinforcements who arrived to support Mathers in his battle against Aleister Crowley.[2] In real-life, during the schisms in the Golden Dawn, he was initially affiliated with Waite's faction but split away in a subsequent schism, co-founding and leading the successor organization Stella Matutina.[Ext 3][TBR 1] His magical motto as Imperator of the latter was Finem Respice (Latin: "Look to the end").[Ext 1][TBR 1]

Annie Horniman

Work in progress

In the Toaru series, the recreated Mina Mathers refers to her friend Annie, whom she begged for living expenses.[3] This is almost certainly Annie Horniman, a prominent theatre patron who was a friend of Mina Bergson/Moina Mathers. The real-life Horniman was a sponsor to the Mathers and also a member of the Golden Dawn, though it isn't known if her Toaru counterpart was also part of the cabal.

Annie Horniman was born in 1860, into a family/line of tea merchants (which was the source of her nickname "Hornibags"). Privately educated at home, her contact with the theatre was somewhat limited in her early years as her father considered theatre sinful, though her governess secretly took her to a performance of The Merchant of Venice at Crystal Palance when she was 14. She was allowed to enter Slade School of Fine Art in 1882. While her artistic talents were apparently somewhat limited, she further developed her interest in theatre and opera there. She also became a good friend of Mina Bergson (later Moina Mathers), though their relationship would become strained after Mathers entered the picture.[TBR 1]

Following her friend, Horniman joined the Golden Dawn in 1890. Her magical motto was Fortiter et Recte (Latin: "Strongly and rightly").[TBR 1] She was a key sponsor to the Mathers in Paris, however her relationship with them gradually deteriorated. Horniman had hoped for Moina to continue her art studies with her funding, but her husband was increasingly focused on militarism and his Jacobite agenda. Not wishing to support a cause she didn't believe in, Horniman eventually withdrew her support in 1895, Mathers attempted to exert his authority, but Horniman refused to resume funding and was subsequently expelled from the Golden Dawn. She was later reinstated into the order following Mathers' expulsion but left again not long afterwards.[TBR 1]

Horniman was also a friend of fellow Golden Dawn members W. B. Yeats (acting as his amanuensis for some years) and Florence Farr (to whom she gave anonymous support in new plays at Avenue Theatre, including one by Yeats). In 1903, Yeats persuaded her to go to Dublin to back productions by Irish National Theatre Society. While there, she established the Abbey Theatre, which opened in 1904. She continued supporting it for a time after returning to England, where she bought and renovated the Gaiety Theatre in Manchester (1908). There, she founded Britain's first regional repertory theatre company, which she continued running until the late-1910s.[TBR 1]

Others

There are many other individuals who were members of the Hermetic Order of Golden Dawn and its successor organizations, and others which have been rumored to have been members. However I'm not going to go into detail about them as the research before has taken up enough time and at this rate this might not be finished before 2019.

There are few notable members whom I will mention briefly here. George Cecil Jones, one of the people who brought Aleister to the Golden Dawn and was one of his few friends in the order, who later help him found the A∴A∴. Pamela Colman Smith, who illustrated the Tarot cards developed by Waite. Florence Farr who acted as Mathers' representative in London but split away from him in 1900 as his actions brought about the schism in the Golden Dawn. John William Brodie-Innes, who was on the leading committee for the Isis-Urania Temple and later made peace with Mathers before his death.[TBR 1]

Other associated individuals

Anna Sprengel

In both real-life and the Toaru series, Anna Sprengel's existence is a somewhat dubious one.[6][7][2] Supposedly a countess of Landsfeldt and hailing from Nuremberg, Germany, Anna Sprengel's name and an address was listed in the Cipher Manuscripts, as an adept and a point of contact with the Secret Chiefs.[Ext 2][Ext 1][Ext 8][Ext 20] After the documents were decoded, Westcott wrote to the adept and supposedly received a letter from her granting him permission to establish a temple in Britain.[Ext 2] The correspondence with Anna Sprengel ceased in 1891 when she is alleged to have died, after which the Golden Dawn's leaders had to establish contact with the Secret Chiefs on their own.[Ext 2][Ext 3][Ext 1]

Some sources claim that Anna Sprengel was the child of Ludwig I of Bavaria and his mistress Lola Montez,[Ext 20] though there is little evidence to prove this and little evidence to prove the existence of Anna Sprengel at all. With the possibility that Cipher Manuscripts and the letter were forged by Westcott,[Ext 3][7][2] it is also likely that Anna Sprengel was similarly invented in order to give the order legitimacy.[Ext 8][Ext 3] There's also the fact that her magical motto Sapiens Dominabitur Astris[Ext 2][Ext 1] (S.D.A., "the wise person shall be ruled by the stars") was identical to that of Anna Kingsford, who influenced both Westcott and Mathers, whose Hermetic Society the former attended and to whom the latter dedicated a translation of The Kabbalah Unveiled.[Ext 8][Ext 4]

In 1901, Mathers was briefly deceived by the fraud Swami Laura Horos into believing she was Anna Sprengel. She subsequently stole and used Golden Dawn material in a sex scam for which she and her husband were arrested, defaming the name of the order in the resulting scandal, which was another factor in the group's collapse.[Ext 3][Ext 9]

Dion Fortune

Work in progress

In the Toaru series, Dion Fortune was one of the reinforcements who came to Mathers' aid after he was attacked by Aleister Crowley immediately before the Battle of Blythe Road.[2] Her real-life counterpart was not a member of the Golden Dawn itself, but was a member of one of its successor organizations, Alpha et Omega.[TBR 1] Born Violet Mary Firth, her assumed name is derived from her family and magical motto Deo, non Fortuna (Latin: "God, not Fortune").

She was born in Llandudno, North Wales in 1890, to an upper middle-class family. Not much else is known about her early life but her interest in the occult apparently arose from Theosophy Society lectures she attended while studying psychology at the University of London, following a mental breakdown brought on through circumstances at her previous job at a horticultural college.[TBR 1] This occurred more than a decade after the collapse of the original Golden Dawn - her Toaru counterpart seems to have come into contact with the occult much earlier, though the other differences aren't certain.

A.O./Theosophy/Fraternity, Section under construction
Later Years, Section under construction

Paul Foster Case

Work in progress

Another one of the reinforcements who came to Mathers' aid after he was attacked by Aleister Crowley before the Toaru version of Battle of Blythe Road.[2] Like Dion Fortune, Paul Foster Case was a member of the successor organization Alpha et Omega rather than the Golden Dawn itself and was another who came into conflict with Moina Mathers.[TBR 1]

Case had an interest in the occult from a young age and apparently experienced lucid dreaming, which he would discuss in correspondence with Rudyard Kipling in 1891 at age 7. He also had a musical talent and pursued an early career as a musician, though he abandoned it to focus on mystical affairs after a meeting in Chicago (1909-10).[TBR 1]

In 1918, he met Michael James Whitty, then-Cancellarius of the Thoth-Hermes Lodge of Alpha et Omega in Chicago and was invited to join. He was initiated into the Second Order in 1920 and eventually became the lodge's Praemonstrator, though he drew envy and acquired enemies through his progress. A disagreement with Moina Mather led to Case's resignation and departure from the order in 1921. A few would later express the belief that Moina killed the goose that laid the golden egg with how she dealt with Case.[TBR 1]

After leaving the Alpha et Omega, Case worked on creating his own group in 1922, eventually establishing the Builders of the Adytum (or B.O.T.A.). The group's teachings were derived from those of the Golden Dawn, but with the Enochian elements introduced by Mathers removed, which Case believed to be dangerous and linked to the health problems which caused Whitty's death in 1920, concerns he would mention to Israel Regardie. Around the time of the B.O.T.A.'s founding, he supposedly also had a series of communications with "The Master Rococzy".[TBR 1]

Case would continue developing the B.O.T.A.'s curriculum over the next three decades, as well as authoring various books on the occult, Tarot and Qabalah. He eventually died in 1957 while on holiday in Mexico with his wife and was cremated there.[TBR 1]

Israel Regardie

Work in progress

Regardie was one of the names referenced by the recreated Mina Mathers when discussing the remarkable figures who gathered with the Golden Dawn.[5] In NT20, this was confirmed to refer to Israel Regardie (full name Francis Israel Regardie, né Regudy)(his family changed their surname after his brother was enlisted into the army under Regardie due to a clerical error), an American occultist who was Aleister Crowley's biographer. The real Regardie wasn't a member of the Golden Dawn, though he wrote many books and commentaries on the group and was a member of Stella Matutina,[TBR 1] with the magical motto Ad Majorem Adonai Gloriam (Latin: "For the greater glory of the Lord").[Ext 1]

Association with Aleister, Section under construction

Regardie joined Stella Matutina in 1934 and when the group disbanded, he acquired most of its documents. Using them, he compiled the information into a book, titled The Golden Dawn, which was published in 4 volumes between 1937 to 1940.[TBR 1] This drew the enmity of former members, who considered him an oath-breaker for revealing secrets.[TBR 1] Regardie however believed that it was essential to exhibit the secrets and systems so that they wouldn't be lost to mankind, considering it to be their heritage and spiritual birthright.[Ext 21]

Post-Publication, Section under construction

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  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 The Golden Dawn: A Complete Course in Practical Ceremonial Magic: the Original Account of the Teachings, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Stella Matutina) by Israel Regardie
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Chapter 20
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 The Essential Golden Dawn: An Introduction to High Magic
  4. 4.0 4.1 The Kabbalah Unveiled by S.L. MacGregor Mathers
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.co.uk, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers Biography
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Yeat's Golden Dawn by George Mills Harper
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Biography of Samuel Liddel MacGregor Mathers, Golden-Dawn.org/Golden Dawn Research Ctr.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 The Golden Dawn: The Original Account of the Teachings, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Hermetic Order by Israel Regardie, 7th Edition revised by John Michael Greer
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Chapter 22
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Moonchild by Aleister Crowley
  11. Westcott Bio, Golden Dawn.org
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 The Golden Dawn - A Key to Ritual Magic, by Gordon Strong, 2008
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 William Robert Woodman Biography, Golden Dawn.com
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 William Robert Woodman Biography, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.org
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, Chapter 21
  16. 16.0 16.1 Moina Mathers Biography, Golden-Dawn.org
  17. Psychic Self-Defence by Dion Fortune
  18. The Dictionary of the Esoteric: 3000 Entries on the Mystical and Occult Traditions by Nevill Drury
  19. A Preface to Yeats, by Edward Malins, John Purkis
  20. 20.0 20.1 Fool's Journey by Alan Jones
  21. A Garden of Pomegranates by Israel Regardie
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 To be referenced
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